Modern ideas about the formation of oral tolerance (Part 1) p. 29-35

Y.S. Smolkin 1, 2, E.A. Grishchenko 2


1 Department of Clinical Immunology and Allergology of the State Research Center Immunology Institute of the Federal Medical and Biological Agency, Moscow, Russia

2 Scientific and clinical advisory center of an allergology and immunology, Moscow, Russia


Healthy individuals are constantly being exposed to nonself proteins yet do not elicit pathogenic responses, whereas those with allergies do. At the heart of these differences is the formation of tolerance. For patients with food allergy is most important oral tolerance.

Oral tolerance can be defined as the antigen-specific suppression of cellular and/or humoral immune responses following preceding oral exposure to the antigen. Tolerance can develop naturally or be acquired through therapeutic intervention (AIT). Why allergies naturally resolve in some individuals but not others is unclear.

This paper discusses the main factors and mechanisms involved in the formation of oral tolerance, in the breaking on the development of food allergies.


Keywords: tolerance, oral tolerance, food allergy, regulatory T cells (Treg-cells).